A male dog is called a dog. However, in the context of breeding, a dog is also called a stud, and when referred to as the father of a puppy, a dog is also called a sire.
Unlike some people think, a bastard is not another name for a dog. It is a common misconception.
A female dog is called a bitch. But, when referred to as the mother of a puppy, she is called a dam.
The terms sire and dam date back to 1611, according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
In the past, the subject of the king of England would call him a “sire.” This is to show authority.
Just like the king is a sire to his subjects and has authority over them, the male dog is a sire to his puppies.